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Environmental Values

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Environmental Values

Humans Valuing Nature: Synthesising Insights from Philosophy, Psychology and Economics

Michael Lockwood

Environmental Values 8(1999): 381-401. doi: 10.3197/096327199129341888

A rational process for assessment of environmental policy options should be based on an appreciation of how humans value nature. Increased understanding of values will also contribute to the development of appropriate ways for us to relate to and manage natural areas. Over the past two decades, environmental philosophers have examined the notion that there is an intrinsic value in nature. Economists have attempted to define and measure the market and nonmarket economic values associated with decisions concerning natural areas. Psychologists have tried to assess the extent to which people believe in an intrinsic value in nature, and have also begun to work with economists to improve nonmarket valuation techniques. I briefly review the contributions made to our understanding of natural area value by environmental philosophy, psychology and economics, and develop a model that integrates insights from these disciplines. Components in the model include cognitions, held values, assigned values and various modes of value expression. I make recommendations for future validation, development and use of the model.

KEYWORDS: environment, philosophy, intrinsic value, value expression, integrated evaluation

REFERENCES to other articles in Environmental Values:

Plural Values and Environmental Valuation. Wilfred Beckerman and Joanna Pasek

Moral Pluralism and the Environment. Andrew Brennan

Two Distinctions in Environmental Goodness. Karen Green

CITATIONS in other Environmental Values articles:

Ethical Motives and Charitable Contributions in Contingent Valuation: Empirical Evidence from Social Psychology and Economics Clive L. Spash

In Search of Value Literacy: Suggestions for the Elicitation of Environmental Values Theresa Satterfield

Rethinking Nature: Public Visions in the Netherlands. Riyan J.G. van den Born

Value Theory in Ecological Economics: The Contribution of a Political Economy of Wealth. Ali Douai

Visions of Nature in Eastern Europe: A Polish Example. Agnieszka D. Hunka, Wouter T. de Groot and Adam Biela

The Role of Values in a Community-Based Conservation Initiative in Northern Ghana. Lance W. Robinson and Kwame Ampadu Sasu

The Relationship between Value Types and Environmental Behaviour in Four Countries: Universalism, Benevolence, Conformity and Biospheric Values Revisited. Tally Katz-Gerro, Itay Greenspan, Femida Handy, Hoon-Young Lee

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