The Journal of Population and Sustainability 2021-08-16T21:42:20+00:00 The Journal of Population and Sustainability Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Population and Sustainability (JP&amp;S) is an open access interdisciplinary journal exploring all aspects of the relationship between human numbers and environmental issues. The journal publishes both peer reviewed and invited material. It is an interdisciplinary hub inviting contributions from the social sciences, humanities, environmental and natural sciences including those concerned with family planning and reproductive health. The journal includes original research papers, reviews of already published research, commentary, opinion pieces, book reviews and <em>praxis </em>articles outlining practical interventions in the field.</p> Post-materialism as a basis for achieving environmental sustainability 2021-08-16T21:42:20+00:00 Douglas Booth <p>A recent article in this journal, 'Achieving a Post-Growth Green Economy', argued that a turn to post-material values by younger generations may be setting the stage for a more environmentally friendly, post-growth green global economy. To expand the foundations for the possible emergence of such an economy, the current article offers empirical evidence from the World Values Survey for the propositions that individual post-material values and experiences leads to (1) a reduction in consumption-oriented activities, (2) a shift to more environmentally friendly forms of life that include living at higher, more energy efficient urban densities, (3) having families with fewer children, and (4) greater political support for environmental improvement. Such behavioral shifts provide a foundation for a no-growth, or even a negative-growth, economy among the affluent nations of the world leading to declining rates of energy and materials throughput to the benefit of a healthier global biosphere.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Douglas Booth Outside The City of Grace: appraising dystopia and global sustainability 2021-08-16T21:37:26+00:00 David Wadley <p>'The City of Grace: An Urban Manifesto' (Wadley, 2020) models an ecotech settlement, aiming to achieve economic and social sustainability over a substantial period. The City is intended to be anti-dystopian and non-exclusive, with the possibility of replication in receptive settings. In this rejoinder to the book, the potential for dystopia attending population and sustainability issues in the outside world is appraised. Foundations are established in general systems, complexity and chaos theories, and an interpretation of procedural and substantive rationality. Two possible global failure modes are examined, one contained within the human sphere involving the future of capital and labour, and an external one founded in the familiar problematics of the human-environment nexus. Dilatory responses in advanced societies to these dilemmas are outlined. The subsequent prognosis regarding population and sustainability co-opts a meta-theory from environmental management to assess the viability of possible counterstrategies to dystopia although, in conclusion, its existence is instantiated.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 David Wadley It’s Time to Revisit the Cairo Consensus 2021-08-16T21:34:48+00:00 Christopher Tucker <p>Just over a quarter century ago, the so-called ‘Cairo Consensus’ was forged, fundamentally improving how governments worldwide, international organisations, and the NGO community approached women’s reproductive health and reproductive rights on the world stage. Yet, the deafening silence this consensus offered on issues of runaway population growth has had massive repercussions on the world we live in today, with the ever-increasing human footprint fuelling climate change and ecological destruction on a scale that was entirely predicted. Given what we know now about how empowering, just and ethical strategies focused on women and girls can effectively bend the global population curve, it is time that we revisit the Cairo Consensus.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Christopher Tucker Nudging interventions on sustainable food consumption: a systematic review 2021-08-16T21:27:33+00:00 Becky Blackford <p>As population growth continues, sustainable food behaviour is essential to help reduce the anthropogenic modification of natural systems, driven by food production and consumption, resulting in environmental and health burdens and impacts. Nudging, a behavioural concept, has potential implications for tackling these issues, encouraging change in individuals’ intentions and decision-making via indirect proposition and reinforcement; however, lack of empirical evidence for effectiveness and the controversial framework for ethical analysis create challenges. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of nudging interventions on sustainable food choices, searching five databases to identify the effectiveness of such interventions. Of the 742 identified articles, 14 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Overall, the potential of certain nudging interventions for encouraging sustainable food choices were found in strategies that targeted ‘system 1’ thinking (automatic, intuitive and non-conscious, relying on heuristics, mental shortcuts and biases), producing outcomes which were more statistically significant compared to interventions requiring consumer deliberation. Gender, sensory influences, and attractiveness of target dishes were highlighted as pivotal factors in sustainable food choice, hence research that considers these factors in conjunction with nudging interventions is required.</p> 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Becky Blackford Editorial Introduction 2021-08-16T21:25:53+00:00 David Samways 2021-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 David Samways Population effects of increase in world energy use and CO2 emissions: 1990–2019 2021-06-05T15:55:09+00:00 Aalok Chaurasia <p>This paper analyses population effects of increase in world energy use and CO2 emissions between 1990–2019 following a decomposition framework with interaction effects. The analysis has also been carried out for the 44 countries which accounted for most of the increase in world energy use and CO2 emissions during 1990–2019. Population growth was found to have a significant effect on both the increase in energy use and CO2 emissions at the global level, although the contribution of population growth to these increases has varied widely across countries. There is a need for integrating population factors in the sustainable development processes, particularly efforts directed towards environmental sustainability.</p> 2020-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Aalok Chaurasia We know how many people the earth can support 2021-06-05T15:52:24+00:00 Christopher Tucker <p>A quarter century after Joel Cohen asked the essential question “How Many People can the Earth Support?”, this article offers an answer, based on new science and geographical analysis, and asserts that we have long ago exceeded our planet’s long term ecological carrying capacity that optimistically can only support 3 billion modern industrialized humans. While agreeing that strategies based on reducing consumption are sorely needed to live within our planet’s carrying capacity, the impending explosion of the global middle class promises to render consumption-only strategies inadequate, in the face of runaway population growth and the accumulation of massive ecological debt. Noting recent studies that project global population to begin to decrease in 2064 after peaking at 9.7B, it is asked why we don’t act now to accelerate this already inevitable trend with enhanced investment in women’s empowerment, education, and access to family planning technologies. This paper calls for a goal of achieving 1.5 total fertility rate (TFR) by 2030 to bend the global population curve, begin relieving the ecological burden humanity has foisted on our planet, and to decrease human population as we approach 2100 to something closer to the long term ecological carrying capacity of our planet.</p> 2020-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Christopher Tucker Achieving a post-growth green economy 2021-06-05T15:47:03+00:00 Douglas Booth <p>A transformation in human values in a ‘post-materialist’ direction by middle-class youth around the world may be setting the stage for a new reality of near-zero economic growth and a sustainable and healthy global biosphere. Evidence from the World Values Survey suggests that a global expansion of post-material values and experiences leads to (1) a reduction in consumption-oriented activities, (2) a shift to more environmentally friendly forms of life that include living at higher, more energy efficient urban densities, and (3) active political support for environmental improvement. Such behavioral shifts provide a foundation for a turn to a slow-growth or even no-growth economy in comparatively affluent countries to the benefit of a healthier global biosphere. To set the stage for a ‘post-growth green economy’ that features climate stability and a substantially reduced ecological footprint, the timing is right for a ‘Green New Deal’ that focuses on de-carbonizing the global economy and has the side-benefit of fostering an economic recovery from the Covid-19 global recession currently underway. The financing of global decarbonization by the world’s wealthiest countries is affordable and could stimulate much needed economic improvements in developing countries by creating within them modern, efficient clean energy systems that can serve as a basis for increased economic prosperity. Such prosperity will in turn accelerate declines in population fertility and result ultimately in reduced global population growth.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Douglas Booth